National Regulation of Space Activities

von: Ram S. Jakhu

Springer-Verlag, 2010

ISBN: 9789048190089 , 500 Seiten

Format: PDF, OL

Kopierschutz: DRM

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National Regulation of Space Activities


 

Foreword

6

Preface

8

Acknowledgements

11

Contents

12

Contributors

14

About the Editor

16

About the Authors

17

1 International Space Law: A Basis for National Regulation

26

1.1 Introduction

26

1.2 Outer Space Treaty

30

1.3 Liability Convention

34

1.4 Registration Convention

35

1.5 Application of the Concept of the Launching State

37

1.6 International Telecommunication Law

38

1.7 Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines

42

1.8 Export Controls

43

1.9 Conclusion

46

2 Regulation of Space Activities in Argentina

47

2.1 General Philosophy and Processes of Government Regulation

47

2.1.1 Law-Making Processes

47

2.1.2 Basic Principles of National Laws

48

2.1.3 Organization of National Space Activities

49

2.2 Legal Issues Related to Launch Services (Space Transportation Systems)

50

2.2.1 Safety Concerns

52

2.2.2 Continuing Supervision

53

2.2.3 Argentine Space Object Registry

53

2.3 Legal Issues Related to Satellite Telecommunications, Including Satellite Broadcasting

54

2.3.1 General Satellite Telecommunications Framework

55

2.3.2 Licensing of Private Satellite Telecommunications Operators (Both National and Foreign)

56

2.3.2.1 Geostationary Satellite Services

56

2.3.2.2 Non Geostationary Satellites

59

2.4 Conclusion

59

3 Regulation of Space Activities in Australia

60

3.1 General Philosophy and Processes of Government and Legal Regulation

60

3.1.1 The Australian Legal System

60

3.1.2 Australia's Early Involvement in Space Activities

61

3.1.3 Space Policy in Australia

63

3.2 Legal Issues Related to Launch Services

67

3.2.1 History and Objectives

67

3.2.2 Broad Outline of the Legislation

71

3.2.2.1 Establishment of the Space Licensing and Safety Office

75

3.2.2.2 Launch Safety Officer

76

3.2.2.3 Registration

77

3.2.2.4 Liability

77

3.2.2.5 Investigations

79

3.2.2.6 Some (Relatively) Minor Issues Requiring Clarification

79

3.3 Satellite Data Distribution Policy

80

3.3.1 International Space-Related Agreements

80

3.4 Legal Issues Related to Satellite Telecommunications, Including Satellite Broadcasting

80

References

82

4 Regulation of Space Activities in Brazil

83

4.1 Introduction

83

4.2 National Space Law

84

4.3 Brazilian Space Law

84

4.4 First Phase of Brazilian Space Law

85

4.5 Second Phase of Brazilian Space Law

88

4.6 Third Phase of Brazilian Space Laws

90

4.7 Brazilian Launch Licensing and Authorizing Regimes

93

4.7.1 The Shorter Way

94

4.7.2 Details of the Administrative Edicts

95

4.7.3 Focus

96

4.7.4 Definitions of License and Authorization

96

4.7.5 Definition of Space Launching

97

4.7.6 Documents Required

97

4.7.7 Liability Issues

98

4.7.8 Foreign Legal Persons: Special Requirements

99

4.7.9 Settlement of Disputes

99

4.7.10 Business Plan

100

4.8 Regulations on Space Safety

100

4.9 Brazilian National General Law on Space Activities?

101

References

101

5 Regulation of Space Activities in Canada

103

5.1 Introduction

103

5.2 Constitutional Basis of Canadian Space Regulatory Regime

104

5.3 Organisation of Space Activities

106

5.4 Launch Activities

107

5.5 Export Controls

109

5.6 Satellite Communications

113

5.7 Remote Sensing

118

5.8 Human Space Activities and Microgravity Research

122

5.9 Military Uses of Outer Space

126

5.10 Canadas International Responsibility

128

5.11 Conclusion and Final Remarks

129

6 Regulation of Space Activities in France

130

6.1 General Philosophy and Processes of Government Regulation

130

6.1.1 Law-Making Processes

130

6.1.2 Basic Principles of National Laws

130

6.1.3 Organization of National Space Activities

131

6.2 Legal Issues Related to Launch Services (Space Transportation Systems)

132

6.2.1 Licensing of Launch Services Carried Out by Private Enterprises

132

6.2.2 Competition in Launch Services

133

6.2.3 National Security Concerns

133

6.3 Legal Issues Related to Satellite Telecommunications, Including Satellite Broadcasting

134

6.3.1 Licensing of Private Satellite Telecommunications Operators (Both National and Foreign)

134

6.3.1.1 Use of Satellite Frequencies

134

6.3.1.2 Provision of Telecommunications Network and Services

135

6.3.2 Foreign Investment

136

6.3.3 Competition

136

6.3.4 Interconnections

137

6.3.5 Universal Access

137

6.3.6 Rate Regulation

137

6.3.7 Content Regulation (Including Privacy)

138

6.3.7.1 Privacy

138

6.3.7.2 Content

139

6.4 Earth Observation Services, Including Data Processing and Distribution

140

6.4.1 Licensing of Remote Sensing Satellite Operators

140

6.4.2 Data Distribution

140

6.4.3 National Security Concerns

141

6.5 Intellectual Property and Transfer of Technology

142

6.5.1 Acquisition of Intellectual Property Rights

142

6.5.2 Mechanism for Exploiting IP Rights

142

6.5.3 Trade and Transfer of Technology

142

6.5.4 National Legal Barriers to International Transfer of Space Technology

142

6.6 Satellite Navigational Services

143

7 Regulation of Space Activities in Germany

144

7.1 General Philosophy and Processes of Government Regulations

144

7.1.1 Law-Making Processes

144

7.1.2 Basic Principles of National Law

148

7.1.3 Organization of National Space Activities

148

7.2 Legal Issues Related to Launch Services (Space Transportation Systems)

151

7.2.1 Licensing of Launch Services by Private Enterprises

151

7.2.2 Competition in Launch Services

152

7.2.3 National Security Concerns

153

7.3 Legal Issues Related to Satellite Telecommunications, Including Satellite Broadcasting

153

7.3.1 Licensing of Private Satellite Telecommunications Operators

155

7.3.2 Foreign Investment

157

7.3.3 Competition

158

7.3.4 Interconnections

158

7.3.5 Universal Service

160

7.3.6 Rate Regulation

162

7.3.7 Content Regulation (Including Privacy)

163

7.4 Earth Observation Services, Including Data Processing and Distribution

163

7.4.1 Licensing of Remote Sensing Satellite Operators

163

7.4.2 Distribution of Data

164

7.4.3 National Security Concerns

164

7.5 Intellectual Property and Transfer of Technology

166

7.5.1 Acquisition of Intellectual Property Rights

167

7.5.2 National Legal Barriers to International Transfer of Space Technology

171

7.6 Satellite Navigational Services

172

7.7 Summary

172

8 Regulation of Space Activities in India

174

8.1 Introduction

174

8.2 Decision-Making Process and International Obligations

176

8.2.1 Organization of and Decision-Making Process Related to Space Activities

176

8.2.2 International Obligations, the Constitution of India and State Practice

177

8.3 Legal Issues Related to Launch Services

184

8.3.1 Licensing of Launch Services for Private Enterprises

185

8.3.2 Competition in Launch Services

186

8.3.3 National Security Concerns

187

8.4 Legal Issues Related to Satellite Telecommunications and Broadcasting

190

8.4.1 Satellite Telecommunications

193

8.4.1.1 Licensing of Private Satellite Telecommunications Operators

193

8.4.1.2 Basic Licensing Requirements for Satellite Telecommunications

193

8.4.1.3 Leasing Foreign Satellite Capacity

194

8.4.1.4 Private Indian Satellite Systems

194

8.4.1.5 Telecom Service License Categories

195

8.4.2 Satellite Broadcasting

197

8.4.2.1 Broadcasting Service Licenses

197

8.4.2.2 License for Up-Linking from India

197

8.4.2.3 License for Direct-to-Home (DTH) Broadcasting Service

198

8.4.2.4 Content Regulation

199

8.4.2.5 Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Operators

200

8.4.2.6 Global Mobile Personal Communications Via Satellite

201

8.4.2.7 National Security Concerns

201

8.5 Legal Issues Relating to Remote Sensing/Earth Observation Satellite Services

202

8.5.1 The UN Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of Earth from Outer Space

202

8.5.2 Data Distribution Policy in India

202

8.5.3 National Security Concerns

204

8.6 Legal Issues Relating to Satellite Navigational Services

205

8.6.1 GPS and GAGAN

206

8.6.2 Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System

206

8.6.3 Participation in GLONASS

207

8.6.4 Participation in Galileo

207

8.6.5 International Legal Regime for GNSS

208

8.6.5.1 Sovereignty

208

8.6.5.2 Liability

209

8.6.6 Application of International Legal Regime to GAGAN and IRNSS

209

8.6.7 Current Indian Legal Regime Relating to Aeronautical Navigation Services

211

8.7 Intellectual Property Rights and Transfer of Technology

214

8.7.1 Acquisition of Intellectual Property Rights

214

8.7.2 Mechanism for Exploiting Intellectual Property Rights

215

8.7.3 Trade and Transfer of Technology

216

8.7.4 National Barriers to International Transfer of Space Technology

217

8.8 Conclusion

219

9 Regulation of Space Activities in Japan

220

9.1 General Philosophy and Process for Government Regulation

220

9.1.1 Law-Making Process

220

9.1.2 Basic Principles of National Law

221

9.1.3 Organization of National Space Activities

222

9.1.3.1 A Primary Agency to Engage in Space Development: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)

222

9.1.3.2 Entity to Decide National Space Policy: From Space Activities Commission (SAC) to Council for Science and Technology Policy (CSTP)

223

9.1.3.3 Other Agencies Involved in the Development and Use of Space

225

9.1.3.4 Authorization and Supervision of JAXA

226

9.1.4 Constitutional Matters (Jurisdiction Over Space Activities) and Implementation of International Treaties in Japan

228

9.2 Legal Issues Related to Launch Services (Space Transportation Systems)

228

9.2.1 Licensing of Launch Services Provided by Private Enterprises

228

9.2.2 Competition in Launch Services

233

9.2.3 National Security Concerns

234

9.2.3.1 Export Control Laws and Policy

234

9.2.3.2 Inward Direct Investment

236

9.2.3.3 Peaceful Uses: From Non-Military to Non-Aggressive Uses

237

9.3 Legal Issues Related to Satellite Telecommunications, Including Satellite Broadcasting

238

9.3.1 Licensing of Private Satellite Telecommunications Operators (Both National and Foreign)

238

9.3.2 Foreign Investments

240

9.3.3 Competition, Interconnection, Universal Access, and Rate Regulation

241

9.3.4 Content Regulation (Including Privacy)

241

9.4 Earth Observation Services, Including Data Processing and Distribution

243

9.5 Intellectual Property and Transfer of Technology

243

9.6 Satellite Navigation Services

243

10 Regulation of Space Activities in The Netherlands

245

10.1 The General Background: The Netherlands and Outer Space

245

10.2 The Specific Background: The Netherlands and International Space Law

246

10.3 New Developments: The Changing Dutch Spacescape

249

10.4 Mircorp and New Skies Satellites

251

10.5 The Dutch Space Activities Act

256

10.5.1 Chapter 1: General Provisions

256

10.5.2 Chapter 2: Licences

258

10.5.3 Chapter 3: Registry of Space Objects

260

10.5.4 Chapter 4: Redress

262

10.5.5 Chapter 5: Enforcement

263

10.5.6 Chapter 6: Amendments to Other Legislation

263

10.5.7 Chapter 7: Concluding Provisions

264

10.6 The Netherlands: A New Gateway to Outer Space?

264

11 Regulation of Space Activities in the Peoples Republic of China

266

11.1 General Philosophy and Processes of Government Regulation

266

11.1.1 Law-Making Processes

266

11.1.2 Basic Principles of National Laws

268

11.1.3 Organization of National Space Activities

269

11.2 Legal Issues Related to Launch Services (Space Transportation Systems)

270

11.2.1 Licensing of Launch Services by Private Enterprises

270

11.2.2 Competition in Launch Services

271

11.3 Legal Issues Related to Satellite Telecommunications, Including Satellite Broadcasting

272

11.3.1 Licensing of Private Satellite Telecommunications Operators (Both National and Foreign)

272

11.3.2 Foreign Investment

274

11.3.3 Competition

276

11.3.4 Interconnections

278

11.3.5 Universal Access

278

11.3.6 Rate Regulation

279

11.3.7 Content Regulation (Including Privacy)

280

11.3.8 Intellectual Property and Transfer of Technology

281

11.3.8.1 Acquisition of Intellectual Property Rights

281

11.3.8.2 Mechanism of Exploiting IP Rights

282

11.3.8.3 National Legal Barriers to International Transfer of Space Technology

282

11.4 Other Matters

283

12 Regulation of Space Activities in South Africa

285

12.1 Introduction

285

12.2 General Philosophy and Processes of Government Regulation

290

12.2.1 Law-Making Process

290

12.2.2 Basic Principles of National Laws and Their Interaction with International Law

291

12.2.3 Organisation of National Space Law

292

12.2.3.1 The Space Affairs Act Act 84 of 1993. (''The Space Affairs Act'')

293

12.2.3.2 The Non-Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Act Act 87 of 1993. (''The Non-Proliferation Act'')

293

12.2.3.3 The National Conventional Arms Control Act Act 41 of 2002. (''Conventional Arms Control Act'')

294

12.2.3.4 The Spatial Data Infrastructure Act Act 54 of 2003. (''Spatial Data Infrastructure Act'')

294

12.2.3.5 The Electronic Communications Act Act 36 of 2005. (''Electronic Communications Act'')

294

12.2.3.6 The Astronomy Geographic Advantage Act Act 21 of 2007. (Astronomy Geographic Advantage Act)

295

12.2.3.7 The Technology Innovation Agency Act Act 26 of 2008. (Technology Innovation Agency Act)

296

12.2.3.8 The South African National Space Agency Act Act 36 of 2008. (South African National Space Agency Act)

297

12.3 Legal Issues Related to Launch Services (Space Transportation Systems)

298

12.3.1 Licensing of Launch Services Provided by Private Enterprises

298

12.3.2 Competition in Launch Services

299

12.4 Legal Issues Related to Satellite Telecommunications, Including Satellite Broadcasting

299

12.4.1 The Licensing of Private Satellite Telecommunications Operators, including Satellite Broadcasting

299

12.4.2 The Licensing Process

304

12.4.3 Foreign Investment

307

12.4.4 Competition

311

12.4.5 Interconnection

316

12.4.6 Universal Access

318

12.4.7 Rate Regulation

321

12.4.8 Content Regulation

321

12.4.8.1 Codes of Conduct

322

12.4.8.2 Local Content

322

12.4.8.3 TV Sports Rights

323

12.4.8.4 Advertising

324

12.4.8.5 Election Broadcasting

324

12.4.8.6 ''Must Carry'' Obligations

324

12.4.8.7 Channel Authorisation

325

12.5 Earth Observation Services, Including Data Processing and Distribution

325

12.5.1 Licensing of Remote Sensing Satellite Operators

325

12.5.2 Distribution of Data

325

12.6 Intellectual Property and Transfer of Technology

328

12.6.1 Acquisition and Exploitation of Intellectual Property Rights

328

12.6.1.1 Copyright Act

328

12.6.1.2 The Designs Act

329

12.6.1.3 Patents Act

329

12.6.1.4 The Trade Marks Act

329

12.6.1.5 The Spatial Data Infrastructure Act (''The SDI Act'')

330

12.6.1.6 The Intellectual Property Rights from Publicly Financed Research and Development Act (''The Intellectual Property Rights Act'')

330

12.6.1.7 The Technology Innovation Agency Act

331

12.6.2 Barriers to Trade and Transfer of Technology

331

12.7 Conclusion

332

13 Regulation of Space Activities in the Russian Federation

333

13.1 History and General Overview

333

13.1.1 Space Legislation History

333

13.1.2 Current Legislation

334

13.1.3 Hierarchy of Norms Governing Space Activities in Russia

334

13.2 Principles and Overview of the Current Programmes

335

13.3 Authorities in Charge of the Regulation of Space Activities in Russia

336

13.3.1 The President

336

13.3.2 The Government

337

13.3.3 The Federal Space Agency

337

13.3.4 The Ministry of Defence

338

13.4 Law on Space Activities: An Overview of the Provisions

339

13.4.1 Space Activities: Notion, Goals and Principles

339

13.4.2 Economic Conditions of Space Activities

341

13.4.3 Space Object: Notion, Rules Regarding Jurisdiction and Flight

341

13.4.4 Space Infrastructure

343

13.4.5 Cosmonauts

343

13.4.6 Licensing of Space Activities

344

13.4.7 Safety of Space Activities

345

13.4.8 International Cooperation

345

13.4.9 Liability

346

13.5 Other Laws and Regulations

346

13.5.1 Regulations Regarding Licensing: Procedure and Requirements

346

13.5.2 Regulation Regarding Acquisition, Use and Provision of Remote Sensing Data

347

13.5.3 Regulation Regarding the Registration of Space Objects

349

13.6 Conclusion

350

13.7 Annex

350

14 Regulation of Space Activities in Ukraine

352

14.1 General Philosophy and Processes of Government Regulation

352

14.1.1 Law-Making Process

352

14.1.2 Basic Principles of National Laws

353

14.1.3 Organization of National Space Activities

355

14.2 Legal Issues Related to Launch Services (Space Transportation Systems)

356

14.2.1 Licensing of Launch Services Provided by Private Enterprises

356

14.2.2 Competition in Launch Services

357

14.2.3 National Security Concerns

358

14.3 Legal Issues Related to Satellite Telecommunications, Including Satellite Broadcasting

359

14.3.1 Licensing of Private Satellite Telecommunication Operators (Both National and Foreign)

360

14.3.2 Competition

361

14.3.3 Interconnection

362

14.3.4 Universal Access

363

14.3.5 Rate Regulation

364

14.3.6 Content Regulation (Including Privacy)

365

14.3.6.1 Telecommunication Language

365

14.3.6.2 Time in the Area of Telecommunication

365

14.3.6.3 Protection of the Privacy of Telephone Communications, Telegraph and Other Correspondence, Safety of Telecommunications

365

14.3.6.4 Lands for Telecommunication Needs

366

14.3.6.5 Protection of Information About the Consumer

366

14.3.6.6 Protection of Consumers' Interests in Cases Where Operators or Providers Terminate Their Activities in Providing Telecommunication Services

366

14.3.6.7 Liability of Consumers of Telecommunication Services

367

14.4 Earth Observation Services, Including Data Processing and Distribution

367

14.4.1 Licensing of Remote Sensing Satellite Operators

367

14.4.2 Distribution of Data

368

14.4.3 National Security Concerns

369

14.5 Intellectual Property and Transfer of Technology

369

14.5.1 Acquisition of Intellectual Property Rights

369

14.5.2 Mechanism for Exploiting IP Rights

370

14.5.3 Trade and Transfer of Technology

370

14.5.4 National Legal Barriers to International Transfer of Space Technology

371

14.6 Satellite Navigation Services

372

15 Regulation of Space Activities in the United Kingdom

373

15.1 General Philosophy and Processes of Government Regulations

373

15.1.1 The United Kingdom Legal System

373

15.1.2 Background and Constitution

374

15.1.3 Organisation of National Space Activities

374

15.1.4 Law Governing Space Activity

375

15.2 Legal Issues Related to Launch Services (Space Transportation Systems)

377

15.3 Legal Issues Related to Satellite Telecommunications, Including Satellite Broadcasting

378

15.3.1 Law Governing Satellite Communications

378

15.3.2 Management of Satellite Filings by Ofcom

381

15.3.2.1 Background

381

15.3.2.2 Cost Recovery by Ofcom

382

15.3.2.3 Due Diligence Requirements by Ofcom

383

15.3.2.4 Ofcom Action When Operator Relinquishes Filing

383

15.3.2.5 Non-Planned Frequency Assignment

384

15.3.2.6 Planned Frequency Assignment

384

15.4 Earth Observation Services, Including Data Processing and Distribution

385

15.4.1 National Security

385

15.4.2 Database Rights

386

15.4.3 Privacy

386

15.5 Intellectual Property and Transfer of Technology

386

15.5.1 Copyright and Database Right

386

15.5.2 Technology Transfer

387

15.6 Satellite Navigational Services

387

16 Overview of the United States Space Policy and Law

388

16.1 Introduction

388

16.2 Space Policies

389

16.2.1 Leadership

389

16.2.2 Cooperation

393

16.2.3 Peace

395

16.2.4 Defense

396

16.2.5 Science and Technology

400

16.2.6 Cost-Effectiveness

403

16.2.7 Commercialization

404

16.2.8 Environmental Protection

406

16.3 Space Law

408

16.3.1 The Regulation of Satellite Communications

408

16.3.1.1 The First Communications Systems

408

16.3.1.2 Domestic Satellites

410

16.3.1.3 Earth Stations

412

16.3.1.4 Direct Broadcasting

412

16.3.1.5 Satellite Transponder Sales

413

16.3.2 Export Controls

414

16.3.3 The Regulation of Commercial Space Launches and Facilities

416

16.4 Conclusion

418

17 Regulation of Private Launch Services in the United States

420

17.1 Introduction

420

17.2 Launch and Reentry Licensing and Regulation

420

17.2.1 General Licensing Procedures

422

17.2.2 Post-License Monitoring and Enforcement

423

17.2.3 Transferring a License

423

17.2.4 Safety Approvals

424

17.2.5 Launch and Reentry Licensing

425

17.2.5.1 Licensing Process

425

17.2.5.2 Post-License Requirements

426

17.2.6 Launch and Reentry Site Licensing

429

17.3 Competition in Launch Services

430

17.4 Export Controls

431

17.4.1 Department of State Regulations

432

17.4.2 EAA and EAR

434

18 Regulation of Satellite Communications in the United States

435

18.1 Introduction

435

18.2 Licensing of Private Communications Satellites

436

18.2.1 Fixed Satellite Service

437

18.2.1.1 Non-Geostationary Orbit

437

18.2.1.2 Geostationary Orbit

438

18.2.2 Mobile Satellite Service

440

18.2.3 Direct Broadcast Satellite Service

442

18.2.4 17/24 GHz BSS Spectrum

443

18.2.5 Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service

445

18.3 Regulation of Private Communication Satellite Operations

446

18.3.1 General Obligations for Satellite Video Programming Providers

446

18.3.1.1 Public Interest Obligations

446

18.3.1.2 Statutory Copyright Licenses

446

18.3.2 General Obligations for Telecommunications Providers

447

18.3.2.1 Common Carrier Telecommunications Authority

447

18.3.2.2 Universal Service

449

18.4 Foreign Investment

450

18.5 Competition

452

18.5.1 FCC Policies for Encouraging Competition

452

18.5.2 The State of Competition for Satellite Services

453

19 Politics and Regulation of Earth Observation Services in the United States

457

19.1 Introduction

457

19.2 Harmonization

459

19.3 Data Policies

461

19.3.1 Data Access

461

19.3.2 Data Protection

463

19.3.3 Data Preservation

463

19.3.4 Data Standards

465

19.4 Public and Commercial Uses

466

19.5 National Security and Commercial Uses

466

19.6 Regulation and Licensing of Commercial Remote Sensing

469

19.7 Conclusions

471

20 Regulation of Global Navigation and Positioning Services in the United States

473

20.1 Introduction: The Global Positioning System

473

20.2 GNSS Availability

473

20.3 U.S. National GNSS Institutions

474

20.4 Liability Regime

476

20.5 Conclusion

479

21 State and Municipal Regulation of the Aerospace Industry in the United States

480

21.1 Introduction

480

21.2 Space Commissions

482

21.3 Space Commissions and Spaceports

484

21.4 Spaceport Regulation Independent of a Space Commission

487

21.5 Business Development Programs

490

21.5.1 Financial Assistance for a Specific Company

490

21.5.2 Financial Assistance for Aerospace Projects

490

21.5.3 Promotion of Space Business

492

21.5.4 Tax Incentives for Aerospace Activities

493

21.5.5 Regulation of Specific Aerospace Industry Segments

494

21.5.6 Miscellaneous Statutory References

495

Index

497