Recent Trends in German and European Constitutional Law - German Reports Presented to the XVIIth International Congress on Comparative Law, Utrecht, 16 to 22 July 2006

von: Eibe H. Riedel, Rudiger Wolfrum

Springer-Verlag, 2010

ISBN: 9783540377207 , 289 Seiten

Format: PDF, OL

Kopierschutz: DRM

Windows PC,Mac OSX Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen für: Windows PC,Mac OSX,Linux

Preis: 79,99 EUR

Mehr zum Inhalt

Recent Trends in German and European Constitutional Law - German Reports Presented to the XVIIth International Congress on Comparative Law, Utrecht, 16 to 22 July 2006


 

Title Page

4

Copyright Page

5

Preface

6

Table of Contents

8

Constitutional Principles for Europe*

9

I. General Issues

9

1. The Subject Matter

9

2. National and Supranational Principles: On the Question of Transferability

11

3. Constitutional Principles in View of Varying Sectoral Provisions

13

II. Founding Principles of Supranational Authority

15

1. Equal Liberty

15

2. The Rule of Law

18

3. Democracy

25

a) Development and Basic Features

25

b) The Principle of Democracy and the Institutional Structure

31

c) Transparency, Participation, Deliberation and Flexibility

34

d) Supranational Democracy: An Evaluation

38

4. Solidarity

40

III. Concluding Remarks

42

The Emergence of European Constitutional Law

44

I. Introduction

44

II. Starting Point: The Case Law

47

III. Fundamental Objections

49

IV. A Functional Approach?

53

V. The Case for Further Constitutionalization

59

VI. The Role of the European Convention on Human Rights

62

VII. Conclusions

65

The Legal Position of Migrants – GermanReport

70

Introduction: Who Qualifies as ‘Migrant’ in the German Context?

71

1. The Structure of Legal Regulation of Migrant’s Status: the Emergence of a Multi-Level System of Migration Law

73

1.1. Current Dynamics

73

1.2. German Migration Laws, according to their Rank within the Legal Order

74

1.2.1. Constitutional Law

74

1.2.2. Parliamentary Legislation

75

1.2.3. Rule-Making by the Federal Government

75

1.2.4. Rule-Making by the Länder Governments

76

2. Legal Conceptions Used in National Legislation: ‘Alien’ as the Basic Concept of German Migration Law

77

2.1. Aliens

77

2.2. Union Citizens

77

2.3. Refugees

78

2.4. Migrant Workers

78

2.5. Illegal Residents

79

3. Acquiring the Status of Migrant: a Plurality of Residence Permits

79

3.1. The Types of Residence Permits Under the Residence Act

79

3.2. Administrative Procedures and Legal Review

82

3.3. The Main Groups of Migrants in Germany, according to their Legal Status

84

3.3.1. Union Citizens and their Relatives

84

3.3.2. Long-Term Residents and their Relatives

86

3.3.3. Migrant Workers of Turkish Nationality and their Relatives

89

3.3.4. Admission for Purposes of Employment

91

3.3.5. Persons with Refugees Status or Other Forms of InternationalProtection

92

3.3.6. Persons whose Deportation Is Temporarily Suspended (So-Called Toleration)

96

3.3.7. Admission of Migrant Groups on the Basis of Political Discretion

97

3.3.8. Ethnic Germans and their Relatives

98

3.3.9. Undocumented Migrants

99

4. Guarantees of Migrants’ Status: Graded Integration into the German System of Social and Political Rights

100

4.1. Sources of Fundamental Rights Guarantees for Migrants

100

4.2. Restrictions to Political and Social Rights

100

4.2.1. Political Rights

101

4.2.2. Freedom of Movement

102

4.2.3. Access to the Welfare System

102

4.3. The New Integration Policy

103

5. The Migrant and the Employer: Immigration Policy from a Labor Market Perspective

104

5.1. Alien’s Access to the Labor Market: Involvement of the Federal Agency for Labor

104

5.2. The Employers’ Stance on Future Immigration Policy

106

5.3. Undocumented Migrants and the Issue of Illegal Employment

107

6. State Protective Measures: Graded Protection against Expulsion

108

6.1. Expulsion and Deportation Decisions in German Law

108

6.2. Supranational and International Sources for Protection against Expulsion

110

Constitutional Referendum in Germany –Country Report

113

I. Introduction

113

II. Terminology

114

III. Historical Overview

115

1. The Experience of Weimar

115

a) Options for a Referendum in the Constitution of Weimar

115

b) Constitutional Referenda in the Praxis of Weimar

117

2. The Decision of the Parliamentary Council

119

IV. Constitutional Referendum and the Basic Law (GG)

120

1. The Referendum in order to Change Internal Borders

122

a) Genesis and Purpose of Art. 29 GG

122

b) Elements of Direct Democracy in Art. 29 GG

123

(1) The Referendum Pursuant to Art. 29 (2) GG

123

(2) The Right to Initiate the Process of a New Delimitation – a Popular Initiative

124

(3) The Advisory Referendum in Art. 29 (5) GG

125

(4) The Anticipated Referendum

125

2. The Referendum to Replace the Basic Law – Art. 146 GG42

125

V. Constitutional Referendum in the Constitutions of the Länder50

126

1. Dissolving of Parliament before the Expiry of a Legislative Term

127

2. Initiation of Legislation / Petition for a Referendum /Referendum

128

3. The Plea for Referendum

129

4. Amendment of the Constitution

131

E-Government – Country Report on Germany

132

I. Introduction

132

II. What Is e-Government?

134

III. The Current Status of e-Government in Germany in an International Comparison

136

IV. The Significance of e-Government within the Political Agenda

138

V. Policy Initiatives on e-Government

138

1. The “BundOnline2005” Initiative

139

2. Media@Komm and Media@Komm-Transfer

140

3. Deutschland-Online

142

VI. Legal Implications of e-Government

143

1. Electronic Communication in Administrative Procedures

144

2. Admissibility of Electronic Form

145

a) Opening Electronic Access

145

b) Factual Access of Electronic Declarations

148

3. Replacement of Written Form through Electronic Form

149

4. Transmission Difficulties

152

5. Summary

152

VII. E-Government Applications in Practice

152

1. ELSTER

153

2. E-Procurement

155

VIII. Executive Summary and Outlook

156

Quangos – An Unknown Species in German Public Law? German Report on the RulemakingPower of Independent Administrative Agencies

158

I. What Are Quangos and where Do They Exist?

158

II. Are there Independent Administrative Agencies withRule-making Powers in Germany?

160

1. Direct Administration

160

a) Concept

160

b) The Federal Authorities

161

2. Indirect Administration

165

a) Concept

165

b) Corporate Bodies Under Public Law

166

c) Public Law Institutions

166

3. Maxims and Boundaries of Administrative Body Independisation

168

a) Principles

168

b) Constitutional Boundaries

169

III. The Agency Approach in the European Community and the U.S.

173

1. European Community Law

173

2. United States Law

177

IV. Concluding Remarks

178

Progress and the Precautionary Principle in Administrative Law – Country Report on Germany

183

I. Introduction

184

II. The Concept of Precautionary Action

186

1. Material Content and Limits of the Precautionary Principle in German Law

186

2. The Limits of Precaution: the Residual Risk

189

III. The Requirements for Precautionary Action in German Constitutional Law

190

IV. The Requirements for Precautionary Action in German Statutory Law

192

1. Conceptual Issues

192

2. Relevant Rules of Administrative Procedure and Administrative Court Procedure relating to the Burden of Proof

194

3. The Draft of a General Environmental Code

196

4. The Federal Pollutants Control Act

196

5. The Atomic Energy Act

198

6. The Gene Technology Act

200

7. The Environmental Impact Assessment Act

201

8. Consumer Health Protection

201

9. The Chemicals Act

202

10. The Fight against Terrorism and Disaster Management

204

11. Other Areas

205

V. Consequences for the Precautionary Principle as Applied in Administrative Law

206

1. The Phases of Risk Administration

206

a) Risk Assessment

206

b) Risk Management: Wide Margins of Appreciation and Discretion

208

2. Specific Requirements of Risk Administration

209

a) Requirement of Argumentation and Clear Determination

210

b) Requirements of Proportionality and Risk Comparison

210

c) Requirement of Establishing Accountability

211

d) Requirement of Administrative Review

211

VI. The Future

212

Legal Means for Eliminating Corruption in the Public Service

214

I. The Factual and Legal Context

215

1. The Occurrence of Corruption in Germany – Spotlights and Statistics

215

2. The Legal Framework and the Scope of this Report

221

II. The Legal Mechanisms for the Fight against Corruption in the Public Service

223

1. Rules Safeguarding Institutions

223

a) Rules Safeguarding Public Administration

224

(1) Criminal Law

224

(2) Administrative Law

227

b) Rules Safeguarding the Integrity of Political Decision-Making

231

(1) General Rules of Criminal Law

231

(2) Further Rules of Conduct for Politicians

233

(3) Financing of Political Parties

236

2. Rules Safeguarding Transactions

237

3. The Investigation of Potential Corruption

241

a) Investigating Authorities

241

b) Procedures and Penalties

243

III. Conclusion

246

Characteristics of International Administration in Crisis Areas – A German Perspective

249

I. Factual Background

249

II. The Legal and Institutional Framework Under GermanLaw

254

1. The 1994 Constitutional Court Ruling

254

2. The 2005 Federal Law on Parliamentary Approval of International Deployment of German Armed Forces

256

3. Institutional Setting and Action Plan “Civilian Crisis Prevention”

258

III. The Legitimacy of International Administration in Crisis Areas Under Public International Law

261

1. Political Assessment

261

2. Academic Debate

263

IV. Linkages to Development Co-operation

266

V. Perspectives

267

Constitutional Guarantees of Judicial Independence in Germany

269

I. Introduction: The Legal Framework

269

II. The Elements of Judicial Independence in Germany

271

1. Substantive Independence

272

a) Independence from the Legislature

273

b) Independence from the Executive

274

c) Independence within the Judiciary

275

2. Structural Independence

276

3. Personal Independence

276

III. Appointment of Judges

277

1. The Necessary Qualifications for Judicial Appointment

277

2. The Selection and Appointment Process

278

IV. Independence of Judges while in Office

281

1. Judicial Tenure

281

2. The Scope of Judges’ Authority and Powers

282

3. Independence and Disciplinary Supervision

283

4. The Financial Independence of Judges

285

V. Dismissal and Transfer of Judges from Office

285

1. Grounds of Dismissal

285

2. The Body Authorized to Dismiss Judges and to Make Final Decisions on Disciplinary Measures

287

VI. Conclusion

288

List of Contributors

290