Interpretation of Law in the Global World: From Particularism to a Universal Approach

von: Joanna Jemielniak, Przemyslaw Miklaszewicz

Springer-Verlag, 2010

ISBN: 9783642048869 , 378 Seiten

Format: PDF, OL

Kopierschutz: DRM

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Interpretation of Law in the Global World: From Particularism to a Universal Approach


 

Contributors

7

Contents

5

List of Abbreviations

9

About the Authors

11

Introduction Capturing the Change: Universalising Tendencies in Legal Interpretation

15

1 Factors Stimulating and Impeding the Adoption of a Universal Approach to Law Interpretation at a National Level

16

2 The Interpretation of National Law in Conformity with EU Law: A New Method of Interpretation to Serve the Effectiveness of the acquis communautaire

17

3 The Power of National Courts to Refuse to Apply National Provisions Contrary to EU Law. The Rise of a European Judicial Review or an Escape from the Difficult Task of Conforming Interpretation?

21

4 From Formal to Real Guarantees of Individual Rights: The Influence of the Case Law of the ECtHR on the Interpretation of Domestic Constitutional Provisions

22

5 Harmonised Rules of the International Trade and their Impact onto Legal Interpretation

24

6 Role of International Commercial Arbitration in the Development of a Universal Interpretative Approach

26

7 Legal Interpretation in a Process of Change

29

Legal Theory

32

European Law

33

European Criminal Law

35

Private Law

37

References

38

Part I Legal Theory

42

Chapter 1 Transformations in Law Interpretation: Towards a Universal Approach The Phenomenon, Causes and Symptoms

43

1 Introduction

43

1.1 The transitively formulated problem

43

1.2 Law (as text) exists only through its meaning

44

1.3 Ambiguity of the notion of ''law interpretation''

44

1.4 Confusion between the two meanings of --law interpretation-- -- as the action and the effect

44

1.5 The volume's thematic issue: the study of interpretation or of its results? (law contents)

45

1.6

45

2 Legal Transactions in the Process of Globalisation The Premise and Cause of the Atrophy of Particularism in the Interpretation of Law

45

2.1 Features of the contemporary exchange of goods and services in favour of the atrophy of particularism

45

2.2

46

2.3

46

2.3.1

46

2.3.2

47

2.3.3

47

2.4 The globalisation of exchange forces the global approach to interpretation

47

2.5 Imposing the features of universality on legal particularism -- arbitration at work

48

3 Multicentre Interpretation Market

49

3.1

49

3.2

50

3.3

50

3.4

50

3.5

51

3.6

51

3.6.1

52

3.6.2

52

3.7

53

3.8

54

4 Interpretative Dialogue (the Difficulties)

55

4.1

55

4.2 Interpretative dialogue -- the ECtHR

56

4.2.1 General principle

56

4.2.2

57

4.2.3 --Revindication-- cases connected with political transformations in new countries -- as an example of a local phenomenon of systematic importance

58

4.3 Interpretative dialogue -- the ECJ

58

4.4

59

5 Interpretative Dialogue The Global Approach to Interpretation Methods

59

5.1 The mechanism for the emergence of interpretative doubts can be depicted by the triad: to see--want--be able to

59

5.2

59

5.3

60

5.4

61

5.5 Interpretation methods -- from particularism to a global approach

61

5.5.1

61

5.5.2 Decreasing the significance of textualism (interpretation particular -- since bound to the language of the interpreted text)

62

5.5.3 Broadened scope of systematic interpretation

62

5.5.4 Observing the multicentricity of interpretation sources is tantamount to equipping the procedure of law interpretation itself in a more global form

62

References

63

Chapter 2 Discourse Ethics as a Basis of the Application of Law

65

1 Introduction

65

2 General Assumption of Discourse Ethics

66

3 The Concept of the Discursive Model of the Judicial Application of Law

70

4 Seeking the Priority Principle as a Subject of the Application of Law

73

5 The Judge as a Real Participant of the Communication Community

76

References

80

Chapter 3 Judicial Interpretation of Bilingual and Multilingual Laws: A European and Hong Kong Comparison

82

1 Introduction

82

2 Equal Authenticity Rule

83

3 Interpretation of EU Laws in the ECJ

85

3.1 How ECJ Approaches Divergence in Multilingual Law

86

3.2 Bilingual Statutory Interpretation in Hong Kong

90

3.4 Implications

94

References

97

Chapter 4 The European Dual Nature: Unity/Fragmentation

98

1 Introduction

16

2 Mapping the European Duality

17

2.1 Unity Without Uniformity and Diversity Without Fragmentation

100

2.2 Legal Pluralism

101

2.3 From Fragmentation to Unity

102

3 Legal Representations of Fragmentation and Unity in Europe

26

3.1 Same-Sex Couple and Their Rights

103

3.1.1 Cultural Symbolism over the Word ''Marriage''

103

3.1.2 The Legal Shift in Meaning of ''Marriage''

104

3.1.3 A Search of European Unity: A Case Study

105

3.2 Handicap -- Disability and the Law

106

3.2.1 Cultural Symbolism over the Word ''Handicap, Disability''

107

3.2.2 Seeking Unity Before the Law

108

3.2.3 Seeking European Harmonization

109

4 Transnational or Cross-Boundary Harmonization within the EU

111

References

38

Part II European Law

115

Chapter 5 The Universalisation of Legal Interpretation

116

1 Introductory Remarks

116

2 Light and Shade of the Universal Standard

121

3 The Role of the Judiciary in the Universalisation of the Interpretive Standard

122

4 New Instruments of Legal Interpretation: Pretence or Reality? An Attempt of Exemplification

124

5 The Real (Genuine) Influence on the Interpretation of Law

125

6 Complementary Influence on the Interpretation of Law

129

7 Illusory/Decorative Influence of Supranational Interpretation

131

8 Conclusion

131

References

132

Chapter 6 The Power of National Courts in Interpreting Domestic and EU Law: The Indeterminacy of Choice

134

1 Introduction

134

2 Europeanization of the Universal

136

2.1 Looking for the Unicorn: Universalism and Particularism

137

2.2 Multiculturalism as an Alternative

139

2.3 An Evolving Universal

140

3 Judges as Social Engineers

143

3.1 Lost Formalism

144

3.2 A Synthesis of Theories of Judicial Reasoning

145

4 Conclusions

149

References

150

Chapter 7 Implementation of European Regulation of the Financial Sector: Consequences for the Consumer Protection

152

1 Introduction

152

2 The Regulation of the Financial Sector

153

2.1 Initiation by EU

153

2.2 The Implementation of EU Directives

154

2.3 The Danish Systematic

155

3 Presentation of MiFID

156

4 Presentation of the Consumer Credit Directive

158

5 MiFIDs Investor Protection Rules

159

5.1 Conduct of Business Obligations

160

5.2 Best Execution

161

5.3 Client Order Handling

161

5.4 Increased Investor Protection

161

6 The Consumer Credit Directive

163

6.1 Obligation to Convey Information

163

6.2 Other Consumer Protection Rules

164

6.2.1 Assessment of Creditworthiness

164

6.2.2 Right of Withdrawal

164

6.2.3 Credit Intermediaries

165

6.3 Increased Consumer Protection

165

7 The Significance of the Way of Implementation

166

7.1 Possible Sanctions

166

7.2 Application of Law and Enforcement of Law

167

7.2.1 MiFID

169

7.2.2 The Consumer Credit Directive

172

8 Summary

172

References

174

Chapter 8 Joint Competence of the EC and Its Member States as a Source of Divergent Interpretations of the TRIPS Agreement at Community and National Levels

175

1 Introduction

175

2 The TRIPS Agreement as a Source of International and Community Law

176

3 Interpretation of the TRIPS in the ECJ Jurisprudence

176

4 The Principle of Consistent Interpretation as a Tool Mitigating Against Divergent Interpretations of the TRIPS Agreement

180

5 Interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement in the Jurisprudence of Polish Courts

183

6 Conclusion

185

References

186

Chapter 9 Some Idealism About Realism. Judging Under Certainty and the Standardization of Adjudication in the EC Law

189

1 The Problem

189

2 Standardization vs. Harmonization

190

3 Liability for Judicial Error as an Instrument of Standardization of Application of the EC Law: The Positive Analysis

191

4 Liability for Judicial Error as an Instrument of Standardization of Application of EC Law: Normative Analysis

203

5 Conclusion

205

References

206

Part III European Criminal Law

208

Chapter 10 Pro-European Interpretation of Criminal Law Vis--vis the Constitutional Standards of the European Union Member States

209

1 Introduction

209

2 The Mutual Relationship Between Community Law and Constitutional Law

210

2.1 Jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union

210

2.2 Statements Made by the Authorities Appointed to Review the Constitutionality of Law in EU Member States

210

3 Mutual Relationship Between the Third Pillar European Law and the Constitutions

212

3.1 Judgements of the Court of Justice of the European Union

212

3.2 The Attitude of the Authorities Set Up to Control the Constitutionality of the Law in Member States of the European Union: Particular Importance on the Issue of the Constitutionality of the Provisions on the European Arrest Warrant

214

3.2.1 Framework Decision on the European Arrest Warrant and a Conflict Between European Law and the Constitutional Provisions of Member States

214

3.2.2 The Constitutional Guarantee Prohibiting the Surrender of Nationals and the Pro-European Teleological Interpretation

218

3.2.3 The Third Pillar Law in the System of the Sources of Internal Law

219

3.2.4 The Constitutional Principle of Subordination to International Commitments and the Pro-European Interpretation

223

3.2.5 The Constitutional Principles of a Democratic State Ruled by Law and Proportionality as a Limit to Pro-European Interpretation

224

4 Conclusions

230

References

232

Chapter 11 Linguistic Pluralism and Interpretation of European Law in the Third Pillar, Discussed with Reference to the Example of Article 54 of the Convention Implementing the Schengen Agreement

236

1 Introduction

236

2 The Difficulties Posed by Article 54 of the Schengen Convention

237

2.1 Authentic Versions of Schengen Convention

238

2.2 Various Language Versions of Article 54

238

2.3 Multiplicity of Language Versions

239

2.4 Systemic Interpretation

241

2.5 Teleological Interpretation

241

2.5.1 Double Purpose of the ne bis in idem Prohibition

241

2.5.2 The Criterion of Objective

242

2.6 Article 54 in the Jurisprudence of the ECJ

242

2.6.1 Meaning of ''Judged/Adjudicated/Finally Disposed of''''

243

2.6.2 Meaning of ''Act''

248

3 Conclusions

253

References

254

Chapter 12 Introducing Hermeneutic Methods in Criminal Law Interpretation in Europe

256

1 Specificity of Interpretation to Criminal Law

256

1.1 General Views

256

1.2 Principle of Legality

258

1.3 Rule of Lenity

259

1.4 Principle of Strict Construction of Criminal Law

260

1.5 Common European Legal Culture and Criminal Law

260

2 Seeking the Only Appropriate Interpretation of Criminal Law Statutes

262

2.1 Hermeneutics as the ''Third Way'' of Interpretation

262

2.2 Origin and Evolution of Hermeneutics

264

3 Hermeneutic Theses

265

3.1 Contextualization

265

3.2 Canon of Text Objectivity

267

3.3 Fore-Understanding and Prejudices

270

3.4 Hermeneutic Circle

272

12.4 Summary

276

References

277

Part IV Private Law

281

Chapter 13 Fifty Years in Five? The Brazilian Approach to the New York Convention

282

1 Introduction

282

2 Overcoming the Traditional Resistance in Bringing the New York Convention into Force: Task Accomplished?

284

3 The Current Judicial Approach to the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Awards

287

3.1 The Basic Framework

287

3.2 The Public Policy Exception to Enforcement

288

3.3 Written Form of the Arbitration Agreement

294

4 Real Adoption of the New York Convention: A Step Forward

300

5 Conclusion

302

References

303

Chapter 14 Explaining Transnational Rules: Discourses and Material Conditions When Implementing the Swedish Corporate Code of Conduct

305

1 Introduction

305

2 Frame of Reference

307

2.1 Putting the Corporate Governance Regulation on the Agenda

307

2.2 Putting a Code of Corporate Governance on the Agenda

308

2.3 Finding Problems and Problem-Solution Models

309

2.4 Summarizing the Framework

312

3 The Perceived Problem of Ownership Change in Sweden

313

3.1 Regulators' Perceptions of the Ownership of the Public Swedish Firms

313

3.2 Foreign Ownership of Swedish Public Firms

315

3.3 Institutional Ownership of Public Swedish Firms

317

3.4 Ownership of the Swedish Public Firms

319

4 The Solution of a Swedish Corporate Governance Code

320

5 Discussion and Conclusion

321

References

323

Chapter 15 The Translation of Transplanted Rules: The Case of the Swedish Nomination Committee

326

1 Background

326

2 International Corporate Governance in Local Practice: Transplants and Translations

328

2.1 Transplants and Those Transplanting

328

2.2 Those Transplanting Are Also Translators

329

3 Research Design

330

4 The Case: The Convergence of Swedish Board Nomination

333

4.1 The Traditional Swedish Corporate Governance System and the Board Nomination Issue

333

4.2 Swedish Regulatory Development for the Nomination Committee

334

4.3 Firm Actions in Face of International Capital Market Pressure

338

4.3.1 The 1998 Firm Survey

339

4.3.2 The 2000 Firm Survey

341

4.3.3 The 2002 Survey

342

4.3.4 The 2004 Firm Survey

345

5 Discussion: Divergences in a Convergent Process

347

6 Conclusions: Transplant and Translate: A Double-Edged Sword

350

References

351

Chapter 16 Transnational Law, Between Ius Mercatorum and Ius Civile

354

1 Introduction

354

2 Theoretical and Historical Framework

355

2.1 Ius Civile

355

2.2 Ius Mercatorum

357

2.3 The ''Civilization'' of Commercial Law

358

2.4 ''Commercialization'' of Civil Law

360

3 Case Law

361

3.1 Case 1: ABN Amro Bank v. Guerrero S.A.

361

3.1.1 The Case

361

3.1.2 Analysis

363

3.2 Case 2: Banco Velox v. Banco Sudecor Litoral

365

3.2.1 The Case

365

3.2.2 Analysis

366

3.3 Case 3. SGZ v. Productos e Insumos de Fitennes S.A.

367

3.3.1 The Case

367

3.3.2 Analysis

368

3.4 Case 4: Global Packaging Solutions S.A. v. Banco de Galicia y Buenos Aires S.A.

372

3.4.1 The Case

372

3.4.2 Analysis

374

4 Conclusion

374

References

376