Creating R&D Incentives for Medicines for Neglected Diseases - An Economic Analysis of Parallel Imports, Patents, and Alternative Mechanisms to Stimulate Pharmaceutical Research

von: Frank Müller-Langer

Gabler Verlag, 2009

ISBN: 9783834983237 , 297 Seiten

2. Auflage

Format: PDF, OL

Kopierschutz: DRM

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Preis: 106,99 EUR

Mehr zum Inhalt

Creating R&D Incentives for Medicines for Neglected Diseases - An Economic Analysis of Parallel Imports, Patents, and Alternative Mechanisms to Stimulate Pharmaceutical Research


 

Foreword

7

Acknowledgments

9

Summary Contents

11

Detailed Contents

12

List of Abbreviations

15

List of Figures and Tables

17

1. Introduction

18

1.1. The Malaria Case

21

2. The TRIPS Agreement and Access to Patented Medicines

24

2.1. Introduction

24

2.2. Standards

26

2.3. Enforcement of IPRs under the TRIPS Agreement

37

2.4. Dispute Settlement

41

3. Economic Analysis of Patents

45

3.1. Introduction

45

3.2. Underlying Economic Theory

46

4. Patent Protection in the Developing World: Theory and Evidence

115

4.1. Introduction

115

4.2. Microeconomic Theory as to Patent Protection in the Developing World

116

4.3. Empirical Evidence regarding Patent Protection in the Developing World

147

5. Legal and Economic Analysis of Parallel Imports

157

5.1. Introduction

157

5.2. Parallel Trade and the Pricing of Pharmaceutical Products in a Double Marginalization Game

158

5.3. Parallel Trade of Pharmaceutical Products in the Context of National Price Regulation

206

5.4. Parallel Trade and the Availability of Patented Pharmaceutical Products in the Developing World

213

6. Solutions for the Problem of Underinvestment in R&D for Medicines for Neglected Infectious and Tropical Diseases

217

6.1. Introduction

217

6.2. Insufficient Market Size and Low Expected Market Returns to Research

218

6.3. Push Programs and R&D for Neglected Infectious Diseases

221

6.4. Pull Programs and R&D for Neglected Infectious Diseases

228

6.5. Parallel Trade and Medicines for Neglected Infectious Diseases

244

6.6. Conclusions and Policy Recommendations

245

7. Conclusion and Ideas for Further Research

248

Appendix

251

Bibliography

265

Index

298