Peace Psychology in Asia

von: Cristina Jayme Montiel, Noraini M. Noor

Springer-Verlag, 2009

ISBN: 9781441901439 , 337 Seiten

2. Auflage

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Peace Psychology in Asia


 

Foreword

6

Preface

9

Contributors

14

Part I Introduction to Peace Psychology in Asia

19

Overview of Peace Psychology in Asia: Research, Practice,and Teaching

20

Peace Psychology in Asia: Research, Practice, and Teaching

20

The Nature of Peace Psychology in Asia

20

Embeddedness of Peace and Violence in Macro-layers

20

Interconnectedness of Direct and Structural Peace

25

Studying Subjectivities in Macro-human Phenomena

28

Concluding Remarks: Institutionalizing Peace Psychology in Asian Academic Settings

34

References

35

Culture, Social Representations, and Peacemaking: A Symbolic Theory of History and Identity

37

Symbolic Representations of Culture

37

History as an Essential Ingredient in the Imagined Community of Nationhood

38

Four Steps to Operationalizing Social Representations of History in National Cultures of Conflict and Peacemaking

39

Step One: Ascertain the Symbolic Landscape of History

39

Step Two: Describe Discursive Repertoires in Dialogue with Historical Symbols

41

Step Three: Operationalizing Historical Representations as Legitimizing Myths or Group-Based Ideologies

44

Step Four: Beyond Representations to Action: Ethics of Research as Good Social Practice

47

Conclusion

48

References

52

Part II South Asia

56

Where Are We Going? Perspective on Hindu0Muslim Relations in India

57

HinduMuslim Relations in Modern India: The Cultural, Historical, Political and Social Contexts

57

Trends in Psychological Research

62

Early Trends and Mainstream Developments

62

Contributions Central to Intergroup Research

64

A Peace Psychological Perspective of Hindu--Muslim Research

65

Suggestions for Future Research

69

Interethnic Engagement

69

Urban Versus Rural India

71

Development and Operationalisation of Context-Sensitive Measures

71

Towards Syncretic Cultures

72

References

74

Political Violence and Peacebuilding in Jammu and Kashmir

79

Kashmir Conflict

79

The Partition and Accession

80

Anatomy of Political Violence

82

Onset of the Present Crisis

83

Explaining Violent Separatism

84

The Ethnic Factor

85

Violence and Human Suffering

87

Conflict Transformation and Indo-Pak Peace Process

88

Peace Strategy: Peacemaking and Peacebuilding

90

References

93

Part III Southeast Asia

96

Peace Psychology of Grassroots Reconciliation: Lessons Learned from the 0Baku Bae0 Peace Movement

97

Overview of the Maluku Conflict

97

Causes of Conflict

99

Conflict Resolution Efforts

101

The Baku Bae Movement

103

Stages and Processes in the Baku Bae Movement: A Summary

110

Toward a Peace Psychology of Grassroots Reconciliation

112

The Future of Baku Bae

114

References

114

Memory for Sale: How Groups 0Distort0 Their Collective Memory for Reconciliation Purposes and Building Peace

116

Reconciliation Context: The Tanjung Priok Case

116

A Brief History of Tanjung Priok''s Political ''Tragedy''

117

Literature on Reconciliation

119

The Role of Memory in Reconciliation

123

Distortion of Collective Memory

126

In Search of Peace: Trading Off the Memories

127

Conclusions and Implications

131

References

132

Contested Discourses on Violence, Social Justice,and Peacebuilding Among Indonesian Muslims

134

Indonesia: State, Society, and Religion in Tension

134

Psychology of Religious Radicalism

137

A Note on the Method of Study

140

Social Constructionist Psychology and Peace Psychology

142

Preliminary Results

144

Construction of the Enemy

146

Discourse on Violence

148

Social Justice

149

Critical Discussion and Conclusions

150

References

153

Interreligious Harmony and Peacebuilding in Indonesian Islamic Education

157

Institutions of Muslim Education in Indonesia

158

Islamic Educations Contributions to Interreligious Harmony

160

The State System of Islamic Colleges and Universities

161

The Muhammadiyah's Educational Network

162

The Nahdlatul Ulama: Indonesia's Pesantren Tradition

163

What Explains the Success of Muslim Schools and Colleges? Contextualizing Islamic Education in Indonesia

166

What Role Does Religious Education Play in Shaping Students Responses to Diversity?

168

References

169

The Future of Malay0Chinese Relations in Malaysia

171

History and Nature of the MalayChinese Relations

171

The Riots of 1969

173

Actions Following the Riots

174

Present Scenario of the Malay--Chinese Relation

174

The Politics of Ethnic Identity

175

A Psychocultural Approach to Peacebuilding

176

Shared Cultural Values

177

Common Religious Values

177

Reducing Conflict, Increasing Contacts, and the Role of Civil Society Groups

178

Conclusion

180

References

181

A Positioning Analysis of Moro Women0s Participation During and After the MNLF0GRP War

183

Positioning Theory

183

The Mindanao Conflict Situation and the MNLF: A Backgrounder

184

Women During and After the War

186

Research Objectives

187

Method

188

Narrative Method

188

Participants

188

Questions

190

Data Collection and Analysis Procedures

190

Results

191

How the Participant Women Wanted to be Regarded

191

Summary of Themes of Shared Narratives

195

Women's Reasons for Joining the MNLF

195

Women--s Participation in the MNLF--GRP War

196

Women's Participation After the War

198

Women's Participation in the Formation of Peace and Development Communities

199

Stories of Women's Struggles, Frustrations, and Challenges During and After the War

200

Discussion

200

References

202

Human-Technology Interface in Philippine People Power

205

Role of Old and New Technologies in Active Nonviolence

205

An Agentic Approach to Human Functioning

206

Conceptual Frame

207

Method

207

Sample Representation

208

Procedures

208

Data-Gathering Procedure

208

Coding Procedure

209

Data Analysis Procedure

209

Selective Coding and Interfacing

210

Results

211

Episode 1: Use of Active Nonviolence and Technology to Oust a Dictator

212

Political, Human, and Technological Context during People Power I

212

Human Agency and Use of Technology during People Power I

213

Human--Technology Interface in People Power I

214

Episode 2: Use of Active Nonviolence and Technology to Remove a Corrupt Ruler

216

Political, Human, and Technological Context during People Power II

216

Human Agency and Use of Technology in People Power II

217

Human--Technology Interface in People Power II

217

Comparison of Agency and Technology Across Episodes

220

Comparison of Interfaces Across Episodes

221

Discussion

221

Role of Civic and Collective Engagement in Transforming the Role of Technology

221

Role of Technology in Expanding and Extending Human Functioning: An Agentic Approach

224

Contributions to Peace Psychology in Asia

225

Technology and the Dynamics of Social Movements and Civic Engagement

225

Appendix A

227

Appendix B

227

References

227

Part IV East Asia

229

Forgiveness for Conflict Resolution in Asia: Its Compatibility with Justice and Social Control

230

Asia as a Conflict Area

230

Korea--Japan Debate

231

Benefits and Risks/Costs of Forgiveness

231

Forgiveness and Justice

232

Positive Relationships of Justice and Forgiveness

233

Third-Party Effects: Conciliation and Retributive Justice

235

Forgiveness and Social Control

236

Group Conflicts and Forgiveness

237

Forgiveness in Interpersonal Conflicts and Group Conflicts

238

Social Psychological Variables of Intergroup Forgiveness

239

Conclusions

242

References

243

Toward Reconciliation of Historical Conflict Between Japanand China: Design Science for Peace in Asia

246

Toward Narrative-Design Science

246

Historical Conflict Between Japan and China Since the 20th Century

247

History in Japan Revisited

248

Discontinuity Between Japan and Asia

250

Discontinuity Between the Past and Present

251

Apolitical Representations

252

Nave Universalism

252

Results of the Session of ''To Help High School Students''

253

Results of the Session of ''Talking to Chinese Friend''

254

Result of the Session of ''Talking to the Chinese Delegation''

254

Narrative-Design Science Toward Peace in Asia

255

References

256

Is the Third Way Possible for Peace? The Dilemma of National Identity in Taiwan and Beyond

257

Geohistorical Context: The Basis of Conflict Among Taiwans Ethnic Groups

257

Historical Representations and Evaluations by Ethnic Groups

259

The Emergence and Developing of National Identity in Taiwan

260

Chinese Consciousness Versus Taiwanese Consciousness

261

Study 1: The Ideologies of National Identity and Relevant Factors

264

Methods

265

Participants

265

Measures

265

Results

267

Differences Among National Identity

267

Bell Shape and M Shape

269

Perception of Ethnic Inequality

271

International Relations with the United States

273

Relations with China (PRC)

273

Study 2: The Imagined Future Nationhood

274

Methods

275

Participants

275

Measures

275

Results

275

Look Ahead or Look Backward

275

Is the Third Way Possible?

277

Conclusion

277

Appendix: Three Stories for Imagined Future Nationhood

278

14.0.0 Story A: Unification is the choice

278

14.0.0 Story B: Independence is the choice

279

14.0.0 Story C: Confederation is the choice

279

References

280

Income Gap, Materialism, and Attitude toward the Richin Developing Countries

283

Economic Development and Rise of Materialism in Developing Countries

284

Income Gap, Corruption, and Negative Feeling Toward the Rich

286

Dissociation of Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward the Rich

287

Income Gaps, Interclass Conflicts, and Social Unrest

290

References

293

Part V Future of Peace Psychology in Asia

295

How Asia Can Contribute to World Peace Psychology: Creating a Dignified and Peaceful World by Employing Unity in Diversity

296

Use of a Large-Scale Geohistorical Lens

297

A Historical Shift Toward Global Interdependence Is Presently Unfolding

299

The Need for a New Philosophical Foundation: Nondualism and Unity Instead of Dualism and Division

301

The Need for More Unity: Generating Systemic Change with a Global Scope

303

Harvesting from the Asian Concept of Harmony

304

Shame and Saving Face

304

Harmony

306

We Need More Diversity: Protecting Cultural Difference

307

Harvesting from Diverse Cultural Know-How

307

We Need Unity in Diversity

308

Harvesting an Ontological Frame

308

References

310

The Future of Peace Psychology in Asia

313

Peace Psychology or Peace Psychologies in Asia?

313

Structural Violence and the Vestiges of Colonialism in Asia

315

Collectivist Values, Social Violence, and Peace in Asia

316

The Religious Factor in Asian Public Life

317

Future Directions

318

Balancing Tradition and Modernity

318

Peacebuilding Across Social Layers: Individual, Group, and Society

320

Structural Peacebuilding: Making Governance Structures Sensitive to Communal and Local Issues

322

Conclusion

325

References

326

Index

328